Nanofiltration Systems

Nanofiltration is a type of membrane filtration system that works like others it’s related to. Namely, it separates inorganic and organic materials from a liquid, and that liquid is usually water. The membrane acts as a sieve of sorts. It is very similar to reverse osmosis in its process, but is not as efficient at filtering monovalent ions from the water. A typical system will remove half of the monovalent ions, but can be efficient enough to remove up to 90% of the ions. Its primary application is in food processing, specifically in the dairy industry. It is also used in chemical processing.

During the process, one side of the membrane has a higher pressure than the other, forcing the impure liquid on the high-pressure side to pass through. As it goes through the membrane, the particles too big to pass through are captured, leaving cleaner liquid on the other side. The openings in the membrane are about .001 microns, so the particles passing through must be very small. The liquid is most often water, and this water can be sent for more purifying, released into the public water supply, or packaged for retail. It all depends on what the liquid is, and how the liquid will be utilized. Since the water is still somewhat impure, nanofiltration is a good process for water softening, but not complete desalination. However, that can be achieved in conjunction with reverse osmosis.

In developing countries, clean water is hard to come by. Since nanofiltration is often used to separate impurities and organic material from water, in places such as these, it is an effective way to make relatively clean drinking water out of polluted, dirty water. It is highly effective and low in cost, making it appealing to areas without a lot of money. Individuals can use this process themselves. Campers and backpackers can use water filters at rivers and lakes to make drinking water. The system can also be used in homes as a water softener.

Nanofiltration has several practical applications. Its effectiveness, efficiency and low operation cost make it very attractive to developing countries without drinking water, and to people who want a cheap way to make drinking water out of impure water that may make them sick. While effective, it doesn’t go as far as making water completely pure. However, when used in conjunction with reverse osmosis, it can make just about any type of water potable.

Membrane Bioreactors

Membrane bioreactors are often used in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. It is a secondary filtration system used in turning sewage water into water suitable for drinking by removing the contaminants. The bioreactor combines pressure driven membrane operations like ultrafiltration and microfiltration to oxidize the organic material, making it easier to separate that material in later treatment. The entire process is continuous and easily controlled, and its widespread adoption around the world has made it the most common form of next-generation wastewater treatment technology. It has several advantages over the current treatment methods, namely size and efficiency.

In a membrane bioreactor, the ultrafiltration modules are placed in an activated sludge, effectively combining two steps—the biological process of digesting organic material via oxidation, and the separation of organic matter from nearly clean water—into one. There are two general formats used for the actual membrane material. The first uses flat sheets of membrane, rectangular in shape. In the second, the membrane consists of hollow fiber bundles. While these two are the most common, two other less-common formats exist as well.

In the third format, capillary tubes of membrane are used and liquid flows outward. The sludge accumulates inside the tubes, in contrast to the two most common formats where the sludge is flushed away. The fourth format uses the membranes in the form of circular disks arranged in an array. The disks are then submerged in the sludge and rotate. Any of these formats will do, but the first two are the ones most often adopted. Whatever the format, there are distinct advantages to using a membrane bioreactor in wastewater filtration. Not only is the process simple and highly efficient, but it uses less personnel, requires minimal supervision, requires less space and is friendlier to the environment.

Membrane bioreactors are being used in many different areas that filter water. Municipal water supplies, industrial sewage treatment centers, and businesses using recreation water services like pools and hot tubs have all experienced the benefits of employing these systems for their water treatment services. While there are many benefits, the system does have its downside. Because it is relatively nascent technology, the operating costs and overall energy consumption is slightly higher than most standard methods. That notwithstanding, it is worth the cost for the companies that are willing to pay a premium for greater efficiency and long term cost savings.

Reverse Osmosis

What Is It, Exactly?
Before discussing reverse osmosis, we should probably go over what osmosis is first.  Osmosis is the movement of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane of some sort from a low water-potential area to a high water-potential area.  For example, when a person drinks salt water, osmotic pressure in the body draws water away from other places and into the stomach to desalinate the water, causing severe dehydration and eventually death.  That sounds horrible, but there’s a positive to this, and it comes in the form of reverse osmosis.
Reverse osmosis is a type of filtration method that applies pressure to a solution when it’s on one side of a semi-permeable membrane, forcing it to the other side.  In the process, various impurities are trapped in the membrane, with the end result being cleaner water.  This process is highly effective when desalinating salt water to make it safe to drink, hence the example in the first paragraph.  While the process is similar to membrane filtration, there are a couple of differences.  First, membrane filtration acts almost like a sieve, with water passing through and the various impurities getting caught on the membrane.  However, reverse osmosis acts more like an air filter, in that the water is being pressured through the membrane to the other side.
This process’s most applicable use is in drinking water purification.  Activated carbon is often used as a filter to eliminate chlorine and other such chemicals, followed by flowing through a semi-permeable membrane.  The membrane is usually made out of polyimide.  Afterward, the water may be sent through another activated carbon filter to eliminate anything that may have slipped through the membrane.  For secondary disinfection purposes, ultraviolet light can be used to kill viruses and bacteria.  When used in tandem with UV disinfection, reverse osmosis can create highly purified water.
Purifying water isn’t the only place reverse osmosis can be used.  As mentioned before, it is very effective in desalinating water, and this is important in places where there is no fresh water source available, like Saudi Arabia for example, which is surrounded by salt water.  Saudi Arabia has several desalination plants to provide its people with clean drinking water.   It can also be used in irrigation, concentrating juices, car washing (because of the low mineral content), and aquariums.  It can also be used in places where water is actually considered an impurity, such as in ethanol production.

UV Water Disinfection System – What You Need To Know

While reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and ultrafiltration are good and very effective ways to purify water, the fact remains that there still could be tiny organisms, bacteria and viruses floating around in water after those processes have ended.   A UV water disinfection system bridges that gap.  It utilizes ultraviolet radiation to get rid of disease-causing microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses.  It has several advantages over filtration and can be used as one of the final steps in water purification one the major impurities have been removed.
UV water disinfection systems are advantageous for two reasons, their practical applications and the chemical-free process in which they work.  The process is relatively simple.  Water is bombarded with UV rays from a low-pressure mercury lamp in the range of about 240-260 nanometers.  This attacks bacteria from the inside out, destroying them genetically via their DNA.  Because their genetic code is altered to the point where they can no longer reproduce, the existing bacteria die off.  It can also be used to remove chlorine from water, but that takes a higher dose of UV rays.  It is important to note that this system does not remove dissolved organic or inorganic materials from the water, it only sterilizes it.
Because of its chemical free methodology, a UV water disinfection system can be used in a variety of places, such as public and private swimming pools, drinking water, bottled water, and for treating municipal (tap) water.  It lessens the necessity for chlorine, which is what makes it so attractive for use in swimming pools.  Unlike chlorine, it is tasteless and odorless, which is why it works well in treating drinking water.  The low cost and consumption, and lack of a by-product make the process environmentally friendly, and the process is immediate, which means it doesn’t need a storage tank.
While there are many advantages to a UV water disinfection system, there are a couple of drawbacks, however.  Since the process does not eliminate organic or inorganic materials from water, this process works best on water that has already been treated with reverse osmosis.  The flow rate must also be kept steady, since a low rate could result in water going untreated, and a high rate may result in damage to the mercury lamp.  It goes without saying that the benefits seem to outweigh the associated drawbacks.  Therefore, disinfection via ultraviolet light is a safe, efficient, economical, and eco-friendly way to purify water.

While reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and ultrafiltration are good and very effective ways to purify water, the fact remains that there still could be tiny organisms, bacteria and viruses floating around in water after those processes have ended.   A UV water disinfection system bridges that gap.  It utilizes ultraviolet radiation to get rid of disease-causing microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses.  It has several advantages over filtration and can be used as one of the final steps in water purification one the major impurities have been removed.UV water disinfection systems are advantageous for two reasons, their practical applications and the chemical-free process in which they work.  The process is relatively simple.  Water is bombarded with UV rays from a low-pressure mercury lamp in the range of about 240-260 nanometers.  This attacks bacteria from the inside out, destroying them genetically via their DNA.  Because their genetic code is altered to the point where they can no longer reproduce, the existing bacteria die off.  It can also be used to remove chlorine from water, but that takes a higher dose of UV rays.  It is important to note that this system does not remove dissolved organic or inorganic materials from the water, it only sterilizes it.Because of its chemical free methodology, a UV water disinfection system can be used in a variety of places, such as public and private swimming pools, drinking water, bottled water, and for treating municipal (tap) water.  It lessens the necessity for chlorine, which is what makes it so attractive for use in swimming pools.  Unlike chlorine, it is tasteless and odorless, which is why it works well in treating drinking water.  The low cost and consumption, and lack of a by-product make the process environmentally friendly, and the process is immediate, which means it doesn’t need a storage tank.While there are many advantages to a UV water disinfection system, there are a couple of drawbacks, however.  Since the process does not eliminate organic or inorganic materials from water, this process works best on water that has already been treated with reverse osmosis.  The flow rate must also be kept steady, since a low rate could result in water going untreated, and a high rate may result in damage to the mercury lamp.  It goes without saying that the benefits seem to outweigh the associated drawbacks.  Therefore, disinfection via ultraviolet light is a safe, efficient, economical, and eco-friendly way to purify water.

Mobile Water Treatment Systems – A General Overview

In times of crisis or emergency, the water supply may be severely damaged or contaminated.  This will often leave the people affected without safe water to drink.  However, there is a solution to this.  Mobile water treatment systems are often used to provide a safe, effective way to get clean drinking water to those who need it the most.  The entire system is designed to be efficient and small enough to load onto a trailer.  Once on the trailer, the system can be transported easily to where clean drinking water is needed.

Most mobile water treatment systems can produce 300 gallons per minute of clean drinking water.  Drinking water, while the most common use for such systems, is not the only use, as we’ll see shortly.  The systems are often automated, so there is very little need for human interaction.  There are several basic types of systems, and each one is used for a specific purpose.  Mobile drinking water treatment systems are the most common, using membrane filtration to produce quick emergency drinking water.  Mobile wastewater treatment systems can be used to augment existing systems, or provide temporary primary treatment.  They are usually ultrafiltration systems, although membrane bioreactor systems can be used as well.
The third most common mobile water treatment system is mobile process water.  This type of system creates potable drinking water and water used for industrial purposes, like feed for crops and animals.  This system can be used in places where farming is common, yet clean water is hard to come by.  A fourth system is mobile reverse osmosis.  Much like the mobile wastewater system, reverse osmosis can be used to augment or temporarily replace a reverse osmosis water purification system.  Some emergency reverse osmosis systems are capable of producing 600 gallons of potable water per minute.
Mobile water treatment systems can be used for various purposes, but the common goal remains clear.  The objective is to provide emergency water where necessary, and a secondary purpose is to act as support or augment an existing process, such as if a plant has to work over capacity temporarily.  Because of their mobility and high gallon-per-minute rate, these systems can provide water to a large area quickly and easily.  The mobile systems use a plethora of filtration methods, such as ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and microfiltration.  They aren’t productive enough to flat out replace an entire plant, but they will get the job done if needed for a short period of time.

In times of crisis or emergency, the water supply may be severely damaged or contaminated.  This will often leave the people affected without safe water to drink.  However, there is a solution to this.  Mobile water treatment systems are often used to provide a safe, effective way to get clean drinking water to those who need it the most.  The entire system is designed to be efficient and small enough to load onto a trailer.  Once on the trailer, the system can be transported easily to where clean drinking water is needed.Most mobile water treatment systems can produce 300 gallons per minute of clean drinking water.  Drinking water, while the most common use for such systems, is not the only use, as we’ll see shortly.  The systems are often automated, so there is very little need for human interaction.  There are several basic types of systems, and each one is used for a specific purpose.  Mobile drinking water treatment systems are the most common, using membrane filtration to produce quick emergency drinking water.  Mobile wastewater treatment systems can be used to augment existing systems, or provide temporary primary treatment.  They are usually ultrafiltration systems, although membrane bioreactor systems can be used as well.The third most common mobile water treatment system is mobile process water.  This type of system creates potable drinking water and water used for industrial purposes, like feed for crops and animals.  This system can be used in places where farming is common, yet clean water is hard to come by.  A fourth system is mobile reverse osmosis.  Much like the mobile wastewater system, reverse osmosis can be used to augment or temporarily replace a reverse osmosis water purification system.  Some emergency reverse osmosis systems are capable of producing 600 gallons of potable water per minute.Mobile water treatment systems can be used for various purposes, but the common goal remains clear.  The objective is to provide emergency water where necessary, and a secondary purpose is to act as support or augment an existing process, such as if a plant has to work over capacity temporarily.  Because of their mobility and high gallon-per-minute rate, these systems can provide water to a large area quickly and easily.  The mobile systems use a plethora of filtration methods, such as ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and microfiltration.  They aren’t productive enough to flat out replace an entire plant, but they will get the job done if needed for a short period of time.